Wednesday, 3 December 2014

Solar-Powered Sunny Speaker


Here comes an another exciting Gadget SOLAR SUNNY SPEAKER

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the solar powered musical companion made from sustainably harvested wood. Developed by Patrick Daly and Ryan Bachman of SoularSound, this adorable solar panel-topped speaker celebrates quality HiFi sound with environmentally friendly and efficient materials. To minimize its environmental impact, Sunny is handmade from FSC certified wood, U.S.-sourced solar panels, and recycled steel. Since the modular bluetooth speaker was built to last, its user friendly design allows owners to easily make repairs or upgrades. To bring this fun eco-minded Sunny speaker into your home, send your support over to the SoularSound Sunny Kickstarter today!

Reference: http://inhabitat.com/solar-powered-sunny-speaker-packs-a-big-sound-in-a-tiny-environmental-footprint/

Forget pedal power! This £80,000 electric bike fitted with solar panels is powered entirely by the SUN

  • Maxun One features solar panels in front of, and behind, the saddle
  • They measure 1.6ft (0.5 metres) and charge the bike as its being ridden 
  • The electric bike travels at 14mph (22km/h) without the need for a battery
  • In theory, this means it never runs out of energy and Mr van Dalen claims to have clocked more than 1,000 miles (1,609km) in the past three months
  • Only 50 of the bikes will be built and sold, for £80,000 each ($126,000) 
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Each of the panels measures 1.6ft (0.5 metres). In theory, because they panels are constantly charging, it means the bike never runs out of energy, and Mr van Dalen (picutred) claims to have clocked more than 1,000 miles (1,609km) in the past three months
The handmade bike (pictured) has been patented and only 50 of the bikes will be built and sold, for £80,000 ($126,000) each. Mr van Dalen experimented with different sized panels before settling on ones large enough to provide enough energy, but small enough to ride in traffic.

It may not be streamlined enough to  nip through traffic, but this solar-powered electric bike will at least make hills easier to climb.
A Dutch inventor came up with the the Maxun One so he could ride through the mountains effortlessly, and his bike travels at speeds of 14mph (22km/h) without a battery.
It features large solar panels in front and behind the saddle and these are used to charge the bike as its being used.
Each of the panels measures 1.6ft (0.5 metres).
In theory, because they are constantly charging, it means the bike never runs out of energy, and Mr van Dalen claims to have clocked more than 1,000 miles (1,609km) in the past three months
The 56-year-old software engineer from Maastricht in the Netherlands said: ‘I used to have a motorcycle that I made trips through Belgium's Ardennes mountains on.
‘I decided I wanted to do the same with an electric bike - cycling with a normal bicycle is too exhausting in that kind of terrain.'


He admitted that he finds traditional electric bikes ugly, and began wondering if it would be possible to cycle entirely on solar energy.
‘Some solar bikes were available, but they all used a large trailer for the solar panels and I wanted my bike to be handy in traffic and effortless to ride, even in the absence of sun,' continued Mr van Dalen.

THE £3,000 WOODEN BICYCLE 

A German designer recently unveiled an electric bike made entirely from wood. 
The so-called 'ebike' was built by Matthias Broda, and has a rechargeable motor that helps with pedalling. 
The development team, which included students from the University for Sustainable Development Eberswalde, now has a working prototype together which it is testing in Berlin.
The designers said they set out to make a new vehicle which would significantly reduce the carbon footprint of more traditional, metal bikes.
But the wooden vehicle comes with a price tag of £3,000 ($4,730). 
‘I imagined how great it would be to cycle just on solar energy without pedalling - just like sailing in the wind.
‘People in my field all said that a bicycle on solar energy was not possible but that didn't put me off, in fact it encouraged me to develop the solar bike. 
The handmade bike has been patented and will be tested to enter the Guinness World Records next summer. 
Only 50 of the bikes will be built and sold, for £80,000 ($126,000) each.
Mr van Dalen taught himself about carbon composites and solar cells since starting the project in 2010.
He experimented with different sized solar panels until settling on some large enough to provide enough energy, but small enough to ride in traffic.
Without pedalling or using the battery, the sun delivers the energy for a speed that averages 14mph (20km/h) but can go faster.
‘This shows how powerful the sun is,’ continued Mr van Dalen. ‘The solar panels may seem large at first glance, but the Maxun One is easy to handle in traffic and the solar panels perform particularly well, even on semi-cloudy days.’
‘I always watch out when the weather is sunny so I can ride my solar bike again.
‘I do find it funny when Japanese people pass by, they say: here they already have solar bikes, which we have not got back home yet.’

Reference:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2851708/Forget-pedal-power-80-000-electric-bike-fitted-solar-panels-powered-entirely-SUN.html

Solar Powered Umbrella Charges your Gadgets

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Protect yourself from the sun while reading on the beach or working on your patio, and know that your electronic devices won’t lose power mid-afternoon! Created by a team comprised of designers from the UK and Bulgaria, Solarella, a solar-powered umbrella (hence the name) is equipped with solar modules and a rechargeable battery that can be used to charge everything from phones and mp3 players to tablets, laptops, and cameras while you relax outside. Instead of having to relegate yourself to areas that have dedicated electrical plugs, you can take Solarella with you, anywhere you’d like to be. You can even stream music through its Bluetooth speaker! No wires required. The Solar Umbrella campaign is now live on Indiegogo, so be sure to get yours before they sell out.

Reference :
http://inhabitat.com/this-solar-powered-umbrella-charges-your-gear-while-you-play-outside/

Tuesday, 28 October 2014

Mounting Structures or Module Supporting Structures for Solar Panels





Overview

The module support (array mounting) structure shall hold the PV module(s).

When deciding about the optimal mounting location for solar modules the following criteria should be considered:
  1. To which extent does the place receive high radiation of sunlight?
  2. is it free of shading?
  3. is it not exposed to dust and other particles which may cover or damage the modules?
  4. will the modules be exposed to excessive heat?
  5. does the place offer protection against theft and vandalism?
  6. is it close to the battery?

Solar modules can be mounted in a fixed, flexible or tracking way.

Fixed Modules

Fixed modules (either as single module or as array of several modules) are mounted on:
Fixed mounting structures tilt the modules at a fixed angle determined by the latitude of the site, the requirements of the load(appliances which are powered by the PV power system) and the availability of sunlight. The fixed mounts should be stable, flat and well ventilated. They must withstand heavy wind and heavy rainfall.
Flexible System
Flexible system use basically the same mounting structures, but the modules are removable.
Tracking Structures
Tracking structures are more expensive and require higher maintenance efforts. The trackers orient the modules towards the Sun, thus increasing their output.

Mounting (Pole / Roof / Free-standing / Building Integrated)

Modules that are mounted on a pole are easy to install an can be easily oriented towards the Sun. They can be free-standing or installed on the side of a building. Usually, a small array of one or to modules is mounted per pole. Thus, pole mounting is suitable for small solar home systems, especially, if the roof support structure of the house is not stable enough to support a PV array.
For roof mounting the most common support structure consists of racks. It is important to leave a space of at least 10 cm between the roof and the array to allow ventilation. Otherwise, the array gets too hot and the performance of the modules decreases. The mounting structure must be fixed to the building or the under-roof beams to ensure durability and safety.
Free-standing arrays on a ground support, usually consisting of racks, are easy to install and to orient towards the Sun. It might be difficult to avoid shading and therefore, enough space is needed to install the array far from trees, buildings and other objects that might cast shadows on it. The modules are easily accessible which is beneficial for maintenance, but could also imply a higher risk of theft.
Building-integrated PV arrays consist of thin film modules. This kind of mounting structure is not common in off-grid installations.

Mounting Structure Materials

Mounting structures can be made of:
  • galvanised steel,
  • painted steel,
  • aluminium or
  • wood.
There is a vary large offer of factory-made mounting structures available on the market, but it is usually possible to produce them locally, too. It is important that mounting materials are corrosion-resistant and weather proof.

Module Support Structure

The module(s) shall be mounted either on the rooftop of the house or on a metal pole that can be fixed to the wall of the house or separately in the ground, with the module(s) at least 3 (4) meters off the ground.

Roof-mounting

Minimum clearance between the PV module(s) and the roofing material must be at least 10 cm. It is recommended that the module mounting structure be supported on top of a pole at least 50 cm long or fixed with supporting angles at four positions. The mounting structure must be anchored to the building or to the under-roof beam structure and not to the roofing material.

Wall-mounting

A metal pole must be fixed to the outer wall of a house by appropriate clamps and fixing material (screws and wall plugs in solid walls or screws in wooden beams) in at least two positions at a reasonable distance. If the pole is not higher than the top of the house, the problem of shading from house-walls or roof-parts must be taken into consideration.

Ground-mounting

A metal pole at least 2“ (50 mm) in diameter must be used with the modules attached at the top of the pole. The pole must be anchored in concrete at least one meter deep in the ground.
The pole and mounting structure shall be sufficiently rigid to prevent twisting in the wind or if large birds alight on the array. The support structure shall be able to withstand winds up to 120 km/h (150 km/h in windy areas).
All metal parts shall be made of non-corroding materials (aluminium, stainless steel) or adequately protected against corrosion by galvanisation (layer approx. 30mm). The support structure should be able to withstand at least 10 years of outdoor exposure without appreciable corrosion or fatigue.

Optional

The structure shall incorporate galvanised steel or stainless steel hardware (bolts, nuts, washers, etc.) for all external connections. These include the modules-to-structure, structure-to-pole and pole-to-building attachments. Particular attention shall be given to protection against galvanic corrosion if different metals are in contact. Different kinds of metal have to be kept separate. Under corrosive environmental conditions (high humidity, high salt content), only stainless steel hardware is allowed.
Optional: The use of rivets or tamper-proof (non-removable) screws for theft protection is recommended.
No objects (trees, buildings, etc.) shall shade any part of the PV modules at any time of the year between 90 minutes after sunrise and 90 minutes before sunset. It should be noted that shading of even a small part of a module or array could cause a considerable reduction in power output. In situations where partial shading is unavoidable, this must be compensated in the system sizing calculations.
The PV modules shall be mounted in a position which allows safe, controlled access for inspection and cleaning. However, security from possible theft and damage may also be important considerations. Where necessary, suitable measures shall be taken to reduce the risk of theft or damage (e.g. from flying stones). It should be possible, however, to remove modules for service, using appropriate tools.
The module(s) shall be installed facing towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere).
The tilt angle should be selected by computer simulation to optimise the energy collection during the month with the lowest mean daily irradiation. To guarantee a self cleaning effect of the modules by rainwater, the modules shall not be installed at a flatter angle than a minimum tilt angle of 15°.
Optional: If computerised calculation is not available, as a general rule (in areas up to a latitude of 40° around the equator), a tilt angle to the horizontal plane equal to the latitude +10° can be assumed as a good approximation.
Optional: Where necessary, deviations ±5° from the orientation to the equator shall be acceptable, unless otherwise specified. Where necessary, deviations of ±5° from the optimum tilt angle shall be acceptable.
Optional: Facilities for users to adjust the tilt angle in different seasons or to perform a manual tracking throughout the course of the day shall be acceptable, provided the users are well informed and wish to do so. In this case, the strength of mounting (e.g. resistance to wind-loading) shall remain sufficient.
Optional: Passive tracking systems for the PV generator shall be acceptable, if the additional gain of energy justifies the additional cost, provided that the tracking system can withstand wind-loading requirements and is of proven reliability. As the advantage of a tracking system is only valid during direct sunshine periods, the energy gained by the tracker can only be considered for system calculations if detailed irradiation statistics, including measurement of direct and diffuse insolation, are available for the site. Active trackers (requiring electrical power) are not allowed.

References

https://energypedia.info/wiki/Solar_Module_Mounting

Sunday, 31 August 2014

Solar Powered Wheelchair

Haidar Taleb, a 47 year old man from UAE, displayed a rare combination of human spirit and willpower when he took up a 200-mile long journey on a wheel chair that he has built for himself which runs on solar power. Being a person with polio since the age of 4 has not stopped him from taking up this challenge on this wheelchair, a piece of technological innovation.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=fV4D3CGiYXQ


World Records In Haidar’s Name.
Since this is not the first time Haider has taken up such journey on his solar powered wheel chair, he will have more than one record in his name once he finishes this tour. These include,
  • Entering Guinness Book of World Records by traveling 80 miles during a 14-hour trip from Abu Dhabi to Sharjah at a speed of 12 mph on a solar-powered wheelchair.
  • Making his own record better by 200 miles, mentioned above on the same wheel chair.
Aim of the journey
Haider says, “By taking-up this journey, I want to raise awareness about disability and tell people that we, despite our disability can achieve anything as an individual, if we are determined to try and have courage to do so.” With this journey Haider also wants to send out a message to other persons with disabilities like him, who have mobility problem. He wants to tell them, “There are no obstructions because you can do as you think. Given a chance, persons with disabilities can perform miracles.”
During the course of his journey, Haider will share the above message to inspire everyone when he talks to both disabled and non-disabled people in schools, colleges and centers working for the disabled.
Promoting eco friendly wheelchairs 
With this journey, Haidar has helped to promote eco friendly wheelchairs. He says, “This journey was important in the sense that through it, apart from encouraging persons with disabilities in general, I have shown the world that solar-powered wheel-chair are important and they can change the lives of persons with mobility problems.”
The journey that Haider took on with the help of the eco-friendly device was sponsored byMasdar. It is a project to encourage detailed research into alternative energy solutions. It is hoped that the invention of solar-powered wheelchair and the message Haidar has given, will have a far reaching effects.

Sunday, 17 August 2014

Cabel Sizing Calculations and considerations



Input information

Electrical details:

Electrical load of 80KW, distance between source and load is 200 meters, system voltage415V three phase, power factor is 0.8, permissible voltage drop is 5%, demand factor is 1.
Cable laying details:

Cable is directed buried in ground in trench at the depth of 1 meter. Ground temperature is approximate 35 Deg. Number of cable per trench is 1. Number of run of cable is 1 run.
Soil details:

Thermal resistivity of soil is not known. Nature of soil is damp soil.

Ok, let’s dive into calculations…
Consumed Load = Total Load · Demand Factor:
Consumed Load in KW = 80 · 1 = 80 KW
Consumed Load in KVA = KW/P.F.:
Consumed Load in KVA = 80/0.8 = 100 KVA
Full Load Current = (KVA · 1000) / (1.732 · Voltage):
Full Load Current = (100 · 1000) / (1.732 · 415) = 139 Amp.

Calculating Correction Factor of Cable from following data:

Temperature Correction Factor (K1) When Cable is in the Air

Temperature Correction Factor in Air: K1
Ambient TemperatureInsulation
PVCXLPE/EPR
101.221.15
151.171.12
201.121.08
251.061.04
350.940.96
400.870.91
450.790.87
500.710.82
550.610.76
600.50.71
6500.65
7000.58
7500.5
8000.41

Ground Temperature Correction Factor (K2)

Ground Temperature Correction Factor: K2
Ground TemperatureInsulation
PVCXLPE/EPR
101.11.07
151.051.04
200.950.96
250.890.93
350.770.89
400.710.85
450.630.8
500.550.76
550.450.71
6000.65
6500.6
7000.53
7500.46
8000.38

Thermal Resistance Correction Factor (K4) for Soil (When Thermal Resistance of Soil is known)

Soil Thermal Resistivity: 2.5 KM/W
ResistivityK3
11.18
1.51.1
21.05
2.51
30.96

Soil Correction Factor (K4) of Soil (When Thermal Resistance of Soil is not known)

Nature of SoilK3
Very Wet Soil1.21
Wet Soil1.13
Damp Soil1.05
Dry Soil1
Very Dry Soil0.86

Cable Depth Correction Factor (K5)

Laying Depth (Meter)Rating Factor
0.51.1
0.71.05
0.91.01
11
1.20.98
1.50.96

Cable Distance correction Factor (K6)

No of CircuitNilCable diameter0.125m0.25m0.5m
111111
20.750.80.850.90.9
30.650.70.750.80.85
40.60.60.70.750.8
50.550.550.650.70.8
60.50.550.60.70.8

Cable Grouping Factor (No of Tray Factor) (K7)

No of Cable/Tray123468
1111111
20.840.80.780.770.760.75
30.80.760.740.730.720.71
40.780.740.720.710.70.69
50.770.730.70.690.680.67
60.750.710.70.680.680.66
70.740.690.6750.660.660.64
80.730.690.680.670.660.64

According to above detail correction factors:

- Ground temperature correction factor (K2) = 0.89
- Soil correction factor (K4) = 1.05
- Cable depth correction factor (K5) = 1.0
- Cable distance correction factor (K6) = 1.0

Total derating factor = k1 · k2 · k3 · K4 · K5 · K6 · K7

- Total derating factor = 0.93

Selection of Cable


For selection of proper cable following conditions should be satisfied:
Cable derating amp should be higher than full load current of load.
Cable voltage drop should be less than defined voltage drop.
No. of cable runs ≥ (Full load current / Cable derating current).
Cable short circuit capacity should be higher than system short circuit capacity at that point.

Selection of cable – Case #1

Let’s select 3.5 core 70 Sq.mm cable for single run.
Current capacity of 70 Sq.mm cable is: 170 Amp,
Resistance = 0.57 Ω/Km and
Reactance = 0.077 mho/Km
Total derating current of 70 Sq.mm cable = 170 · 0.93 = 159 Amp.
Voltage Drop of Cable =
(1.732 · Current · (RcosǾ + jsinǾ) · Cable length · 100) / (Line voltage · No of run · 1000) =
(1.732 · 139 · (0.57 · 0.8 + 0.077 · 0.6) · 200 · 100) / (415 · 1 · 1000) = 5.8%

Voltage drop of cable = 5.8%

Here voltage drop for 70 Sq.mm Cable (5.8 %) is higher than define voltage drop (5%) so either select higher size of cable or increase no of cable runs.
If we select 2 runs, than voltage drop is 2.8% which is within limit (5%) but to use 2 runs of cable of 70 Sq.mm cable is not economical, so it’s necessary to use next higher size of cable.

Selection of cable – Case #2


Let’s select 3.5 core 95 Sq.mm cable for single run, short circuit capacity = 8.2 KA.
Current capacity of 95 Sq.mm cable is 200 Amp,
Resistance = 0.41 Ω/Km and
Reactance = 0.074 mho/Km
Total derating current of 70 Sq.mm Cable = 200 · 0.93 = 187 Amp.
Voltage drop of cable =
(1.732 · 139 · (0.41 · 0.8 + 0.074 · 0.6) · 200 · 100) / (415 · 1 · 1000) = 2.2%


To decide 95 Sq.mm cable, cable selection condition should be checked.
Cable derating Amp (187 Amp) is higher than full load current of load (139 Amp) = O.K
Cable voltage Drop (2.2%) is less than defined voltage drop (5%) = O.K
Number of cable runs (1) ≥ (139A / 187A = 0.78) = O.K
Cable short circuit capacity (8.2KA) is higher than system short circuit capacity at that point (6.0KA) = O.K



95 Sq.mm cable satisfied all three condition, so it is advisable to use 3.5 Core 95 Sq.mm cable.