Saturday, 17 May 2014

Solar Energy Discovery and its Father

Solar Energy has been used by different and various ancient civilizations since the humans started thinking.Some ancient buildings are constructed with the idea to focus the sunlight inside the living area of a building,Providing an available path for entering sunlight is not only the reason but also the flow of air from downward to upwards by removing the building heat automatically."Our Forefathers are that much brilliant"However ,the person who came up with an idea to harness the solar power to create electrical energy was Alexandre Edmond Becquerel.This is the first move in modern world to create electricity from
sunlight.
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Alexandre Edmond Becquerel built the world’s first photovoltaic panel at the young age of 19 and that was in the year of 1839

He was a French Scientist,He was born on March 24th 1820 in paris,France.His Father Antoine Cesar Becquerel,another renowned french scientist,He continued his fathers work and research.His main area of interests are "Electricity","Magnetism","Optics","Solar Spectrum",He joined as a professor at Agronomic Institute in Versailles,1849.

Invention of Phosphoroscope:

He had an active interest in the study of light,He started research on Phosphorescence,photochemical effects,electric light and solar radiation.He was the first to research these topics extensively.He invented Phosphoroscope,A phosphoroscope is piece of experimental equipment devised to measure how long it takes a phosphorescent material to stop glowing after it has been excited.
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It consists of two rotating disks with holes in them. The holes are placed on each disk at equal angled radial lines and a given distance from the centre but they do not align with each other. A sample of phosphorescent material is placed in between the two disks. Light coming in through a hole in one of the discs excites the phosphorescent material which then emits light for a short amount of time. The disks are then rotated and by changing their speed the length of time the material glows can be determined.




Harnessing Carbon Neutral Renewable Energy

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Energy Policy INDIA

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Most of the energy production in INDIA is from fossil fuels and this country is developing alternative sources more rapidly with WIND,SOLAR,BIOMASS etc...

About 70% of India's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels, with coal accounting for 40% of India's total energy consumption followed by crude oil and natural gas at 28% and 6% respectively.

Due to rapid economic expansion, India has one of the world's fastest growing energy markets and is expected to be the second-largest contributor to the increase in global energy demand by 2035, accounting for 18% of the rise in global energy consumption.

Rural Electrification:

  1. The key development objectives of the power sector is supply of electricity to all areas including rural areas as mandated in section 6 of the Electricity Act. Both the central government and state governments would jointly endeavour to achieve this objective at the earliest. Consumers, particularly those who are ready to pay a tariff which reflects efficient costs have the right to get uninterrupted twenty four hours supply of quality power. About 56% of rural households have not yet been electrified even though many of these households are willing to pay for electricity. Determined efforts should be made to ensure that the task of rural electrification for securing electricity access to all households and also ensuring that electricity reaches poor and marginal sections of the society at reasonable rates is completed within the next five years. India is using Renewable Sources of Energy like Hydel Energy, Wind Energy, and Solar Energy to electrify villages.
  2. Reliable rural electrification system will aim at creating the following:                                                                                                                                                                                       "Rural Electrification Distribution Backbone (REDB) with at least one 33/11 kv (or 66/11 kv) substation in every Block and more if required as per load, networked and connected appropriately to the state transmission system."                                                                                                                                                                                                                     " Emanating from REDB would be supply feeders and one distribution transformer at least in every village settlement.  "                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  " Household Electrification from distribution transformer to connect every household on demand."                                                                                                                                   "Wherever above is not feasible (it is neither cost effective nor the optimal solution to provide grid connectivity) decentralised distributed generation facilities together with local distribution network would be provided so that every household gets access to electricity. This would be done either through conventional or non-conventional methods of electricity generation whichever is more suitable and economical. Non-conventional sources of energy could be utilised even where grid connectivity exists provided it is found to be cost effective."                                                                                                                                                                                  "Development of infrastructure would also cater for requirement of agriculture & other economic activities including irrigation pump sets, small and medium industries, khadi and village industries, cold chain and social services like health and education."                                        
  3. Particular attention would be given in household electrification to dalit bastis, tribal areas and other weaker sections.
  4. Rural Electrification Corporation of India, a Government of India enterprise will be the nodal agency at Central Government level to implement the programme for achieving the goal set by National Common Minimum Programme of giving access to electricity to all the households in next five years. Its role is being suitably enlarged to ensure timely implementation of rural electrification projects.
  5. Targeted expansion in access to electricity for rural households in the desired timeframe can be achieved if the distribution licensees recover at least the cost of electricity and related O&M expenses from consumers, except for lifeline support to households below the poverty line who would need to be adequately subsidised. Subsidies should be properly targeted at the intended beneficiaries in the most efficient manner. Government recognises the need for providing necessary capital subsidy and soft long-term debt finances for investment in rural electrification as this would reduce the cost of supply in rural areas. Adequate funds would need to be made available for the same through the Plan process. Also commensurate organisational support would need to be created for timely implementation. The Central Government would assist the State Governments in achieving this.
  6. Necessary institutional framework would need to be put in place not only to ensure creation of rural electrification infrastructure but also to operate and maintain supply system for securing reliable power supply to consumers. Responsibility of operation & maintenance and cost recovery could be discharged by utilities through appropriate arrangements with Panchayats, local authorities, NGOs and other franchisees etc.
  7. The gigantic task of rural electrification requires appropriate cooperation among various agencies of the State Governments, Central Government and participation of the community. Education and awareness programmes would be essential for creating demand for electricity and for achieving the objective of effective community participation.

The electricity industry was restructured by the Electricity Act 2003, which unbundled the vertically integrated electricity supply utilities in each state of India into a transmission utility, and a number of generating and distribution utilities. Electricity Regulatory Commissions in each state set tariffs for electricity sales. The Act also enables open access on the transmission system, allowing any consumer (with a load of greater than 1 MW) to buy electricity from any generator. Significantly, it also requires each Regulatory Commission to specify the minimum percentage of electricity that each distribution utility must source from renewable energy sources.

The introduction of Availability based tariff has brought about stability to a great extent in the Indian transmission grids. A report in 2005 suggested that there was room for improvement in terms of the efficiency of electricity generation in India, and suggested that two factors possibly responsible for the inefficiency were public ownership of utilities and low capacity utilisation.


Power Selling Picture Illustration and Working

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World Map for Solar Energy

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Earth's Energy Budget

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