Solar Engineering Interviews

General and Technical Questions and Answers as follows:

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General:

1.What is your Greatest weakness? 

This is a CHALLENGING question - as if you have no weaknesses Obviously you are lying! Be realistic and work related ention a small flaw. Many people will answering this original Suggest a Trait positive disguised as a flaw Such as "I'm a perfectionist" or "I expect others to be as committed as I am." I would Advocate A Certain Degree of Honesty and list a true weakness. Emphasize what you've done to overcome it and improve. This question is all about how you perceive and evaluate yourself.

2.What do you know about XXX Solar?

 Follow These three easy tips Before research your next job interview: 1) Visit the company website, look in the "about us" section and "careers" sections 2) Visit the Company's LinkedIn page (note, you must have a LinkedIn account - its free to sign up) to view information about the Company 3) Google a keyword search phrase like "press releases" followed by the Company name, you'll find the most Recent news stories shared by the Company Remember, just Because you have done your "homework", it does not mean you need to share ALL of it During the interview! Every reciting fact you've learned is almost as much of a turn off as not KNOWING anything at all! At a minimum, you should Include the following in your answer: 1. What type of product or service the Company SELLS 2. How long the Company has been in business 3. What the Company culture is like OR what the Company mission statement is, and how the culture and / or mission relate to your values ​​or personality.

3.Why do you want to work with XXX Solar?

 More likely than not, the interviewer wishes to see how much you know about the Company culture, and whether you can Identify with the Organization's values ​​and vision. Every Organization has Its strong points, and These are the ones That you should Highlight in your answer. For Example, Ta'if The Company emphasizes on INTEGRITY with Customers, then you ention That you would like to be in such a team Because you yourself believe in INTEGRITY. It does not have to be a cry. In the case That your values ​​are not in line with the ones by the Company, ask yourself if you would be happy working there. If you have no Issue with That, go ahead. But if you are aware of the Company culture and Realize That repository is read dilemma you might be facing, you ought to Think Twice. The best policy is to be honest with yourself, and be honest with the interviewer with what is it in the Company culture That motivates you.

4.Why the XXX Solar should hire you?

 This is the part Where you link your skills, experience, education, and your personality to the job itself. This is why you need to be utterly familiar with the job description as well as the Company culture. Remember though, it's best to back Them up with actual examples of say, how you are a good team player. It is possible That you may not have as much skills, experience or Qualifications as the Other candidates. What then, will set you Apart from the rest? Energy and passion might. People are attracted to someone Who is charismatic, WHO show immense AMOUNT of energy when They talk, and WHO love what it is That They do. As you explain your Compatibility with the job and Company, be sure to portray yourself as That motivated, confident and energetic person, ever-ready to commit to the cause of the company.

5.What can you do for XXX Solar?

 "What can you do for this Company?" This question will be asked Collect your knowledge of the Company and competence as well. Firstly you make sure That you have researched all information about the Company Before attending the interview and understand Which Tasks are waiting for you. You should offer to explain why Examples your education, skills, and experience will be Precious aspects for the Employer. Also consider Comparison in your goals to objectives of the Company and hiring position. Remember to ention what achievement you have Had in previous jobs. And you see yourself hiring That creates the special interest your position.

6.What kind of salary do you need?

 A loaded question. A nasty little game That you will probably lose if you answer FIRST. So, do not answer it. Instead, say something like, That's a tough question. Can you tell me the range for this position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken off guard, will tell you. If not, say That it can depend on the details of the job. then give a wide range.

7.Do Any questions you have to ask us?

 Never ask salary, perks, leave, place of posting, etc. regarded questions. Try to ask more about the Company to show how early you can make a valuable contribution to your Organization valuable valuable like "Sir, with your kind Permission I would like to know more about Induction and DEVELOPMENTAL programs?" OR Sir, I would like to have my feedback, So that I can he lyze and improve my strengths and my rectify shortcomings.

8.Materials for XXX Solar interview.

 http://4career.net/top-12-secrets-to-win-every-job-interviews http://4career.net/13-types-of-interview-questions-and-how-to-sovle-them  , http://4career.net/free-ebook-75-interview-questions-and-answers 440 BEHAVIORAL interview questions Top 36 I let tional 95 interview questions interview questions and answers interview questions internship management 45

9.Other job interview tips.

1. Practice Such types of job interview as Screening interview, phone interview, second interview, I let tional interview, BEHAVIORAL interview (Competency Based), technical interview, group interview ... 2. Send interview thank you letter Media Media Media to finishing the Employers Enigma job interview: FIRST interview, follow-up interview, final interview. 3. If you want more interview questions for entry-level, internship, freshers, experienced candidates, you can ref free Ebook: 75 interview questions and answers. 4. Prepare list of questions in order to ask the Employer During job interview. 5. Job Titles related: administrative / Clerk and Secretary Positions, Positions customer service, marketing & Advertising department, sales and account management Positions, accounting / Accounts Receivable / Accounts payable Positions, 6. Note: This file is available for free download.


Technical Questions and Answers:


Q1. What is a UPS?
A: The full name of the UPS is "Uninterruptible Power Supply". It will immediately Supply mains computers to maintain the normal operation when power failure or abnormity.

Q2. Why should I need a UPS?
A: Un-Stable power quality will effect the operation of computers. UPS will not only immediately Supply power to computers while power failure, BUT ALSO protect Against wide utility voltage. It will ALSO offer pure power users and store your important data whether you are there or not. Therefore, UPS becomes more and more important for computer equipment & 3C users.

Q3. What is called OFF LINE UPS?

A: Off-line UPS Supply will power only when power failure.





Q4. What is called ON LINE UPS?
A: Under normal situation, On-line UPS Supply will power Enigma rectification and will transfer to bypass only when UPS is out of order, overload, or overheat. Normally, the On-line UPS provides the pure Sinewave output Which is same as the mains provide by power plants.

Q5. What is called LINE INTERACTIVE UPS?
A: Under normal situation, Line Interactive UPS will bypass Through Supply power from the transformer. At this moment, transformer becomes charger. When power failure, transformer will transfer battery power to AC output.


Q6. What are the difference ,,, between power inverter & UPS?
Power inverter (except for online inverter) takes about 4-6ms to transfer DC power to AC power when utility power is failing or abnormal, BUT UPS (online UPS) takes zero, therefore, usually power inverter is used at home and UPS is used at office / Commercial place.

Q7. Do I need a modified sine wave or a pure sine wave power inverter?
There are three major types of loads: resistive load (lamp), capacitive load (computer) & inductive load (motor). All These types of loads can be used with pure sine wave inverter, however, resistive and capacitive loads can only be used with modified sine wave inverter.

Q8. How to choose the right UPS?
1. Understand specifications of all UPS.
2. Consider the Requirements of power quality.
3. Understand the current capacity of the UPS and consider the future expanding.
4. Choose the reputed brands and Manufacturers.
5. Choose UPS Based on your Requirements.

Q9. Do I need when I live Where UPS power failure seldom happens?
A: In fact, power failure is one of power problem. The Other Such power quadratic quadratic quadratic problems as high voltage, low voltage, and spike are the main problems. The purposes of UPS is to provide the power voltage protection Overall Customers Such as Regulation, Surge protection, spike, and sags protection. It provides extended ALSO back up without any time limitation.

Q10. How many wands of Power quadratic quadratic quadratic problems?
A: Except the blackout, there are sags, spikes, surges, Noise & Transients will make the PC or Damage Other high technical equipment or shorten the lifetime.

Q11.What are the quadratic quadratic quadratic problems usually do not it does not happen to the Power Supply?
Blackout, power slump, Power Surge, CONTINUOUS under voltage, over voltage CONTINUOUS, frequency fluctuation, interference of computers, switching transient, harmonic Distortion, etc.

Q12.The functions of UPS?
An UPS can perform
1, Power down protection
1. Over-voltage and over-voltage protection
2. Waveform Distortion correction
4. Frequency STABILIZATION
5. Voltage Regulation
6. Normal mode noise rejection
7. Common mode noise rejection
8. Surge protection
9. transient response protection
10. Power Supply Monitoring

Q13. How do I connect more batteries?
It may be advisable to operate the inverter / UPS from a 12V battery bank of the same type in PARALLEL configuration. Two sets Such batteries will Twice the AH Generate a single set of batteries, three sets of batteries will Generate three times the AH, and so on. This will lengthen the time Before your batteries will need to be recharged, giving you a longer time That you can run your devices.
You can ALSO connect 2 6 volt batteries in series configuration unit to double the voltage to 12 volt. That note 6 volt batteries must be connected in pairs.



Q14.  What is an Inverter? 

An inverter takes DC power (battery or solar, for Example) and converts it Into AC "Household" power for running electronic equipment and appliances. 

Q15. Why are They called inverters? 

Were Originally converters large rotating electromechanical devices. Essentially a ac synchronous motor combined with a commutator They So that the commutator reversed Its connections to the ac line exactly Twice per cycle. The results is ac-in dc-out. If you invert the connections to a converter ac dc you put in and get out. Hence an inverter is an inverted converter. 

Q16.  How is an inverter Different than a UPS? 

A UPS typically Includes battery and battery charger the one in stand alone unit. However, there are PSS That use external batteries, and Power-stream makes inverters with battery chargers, so the differences blur as proliferate.UPSs ALSO features can have communication with the That equipment it is powering the equipment letting know That it is operating on standby, giving it shutdown warning, or communicating with the the man in the loop. Inverters typically do not have this communication

Q17.  How many types of Inverter?

There are three types of inverter: (a) Square wave inverter. (B) Modified sine wave inverter. (C) Pure sine wave inverter.

Q18.  What is the difference Sine Wave and Modified Sine Wave? 

Alternating current (AC) has a continuously That Varying voltage swings from positive to negative. This has great advantages in power transmission over long distances. Power from your Power Company is carefully regulated to be a perfect sine wave, because of of of of That is what of of naturally comes out of a generator, and ALSO Because sine waves radiate the least AMOUNT of long distance During radio transmission power. 

Q13.  What about Square Wave Inverters? 

These old-fashioned inverters are the cheapest to make, They just flip the voltage from plus to minus Creating a square waveform. They are not very efficient Because the square wave has a lot of power in Higher harmonics That can not be used by any appliances . The modified sine wave is designed to Minimize the power in the harmonics while still being cheap to make

Q19.  Do I need Modified Sine Wave or Pure Sine Wave?

Advantages of Pure Sine Wave inverters over modified sine wave inverters: Output voltage waveform is pure sine wave with very low harmonic Distortion and clean power like utility-supplied electricity. inductive loads like microwave wovens and motors run Faster, quieter and cooler. reduces audible and electrical noise in fans, fluorescent lights, audio amplifiers, TV, Game consoles, Fax, and answering machines. Prevents crashes in computers, and glitches and noise in Monitors. That reliably powers the following devices will normally not work with modified sine wave inverters: Laser printers, photocopiers, magneto-optical hard drives Certain laptop computers (you should check with your the the the the the the manufacturer) Some new furnaces and Pellet Stove Sewing machines with microprocessor control with speed / microprocessor control Medical equipment Such as oxygen concentrators The difference , Them, Pure Sine Wave is, between the inverter produces a better. and cleaner current. They are considerably more an an an an an an expensive ALSO. You might find it Practical to get Pure Sine Wave inverter for a small Any "special need" you may have, and ALSO a larger Modified Sine Wave inverter for the rest of your applications. 

Q20 What is the Low Voltage Alarm & Shutdown? 

The low voltage alarm will sound when the DC source falls below 10 volts and the automatic shutdown will power off the inverter. This is done to save your batteries so you can restart your device.

Q21.What is a Battery?

A battery, can be any device that stores energy for later use. The word battery, is limited to an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electricity, by use of a galvanic cell. A galvanic cell is a fairly simple device consisting of two electrodes (an anode and a cathode) and an electrolyte solution. Batteries consist of one or more galvanic cells.
A battery is an electrical storage device. Batteries do not make electricity, they store it. As chemicals in the battery change, electrical energy is stored or released. In rechargeable batteries this process can be repeated many times. Batteries are not 100% efficient - some energy is lost as heat and chemical reactions when charging and discharging. If you use 1000 watts from a battery, it might take 1200 watts or more to fully recharge it. Slower charging and discharging rates are more efficient. A battery rated at 180 amp-hours over 6 hours might be rated at 220 AH at the 20-hour rate, and 260 AH at the 48-hour rate. Typical efficiency in a lead-acid battery is 85-95%, in alkaline and NiCad battery it is about 65%.

Q22.What is sulfation of batteries?

Sulfation is the formation or deposit of lead sulfate on the surface and in the pores of the active material of the batteries' lead plates. If the sulfation becomes excessive and forms large crystals on the plates, the battery will not operate efficiently and may not work at all. Common causes of battery sulfation are standing a long time in a discharged condition, operating at excessive temperatures, and prolonged under or overcharging.

Q23.What are some of the major types of lead acid batteries?

Batteries are divided in two ways, by application (what they are used for) and construction (how they are built). The major applications are automotive, marine, and deep-cycle. Deep-cycle includes solar electric (PV), backup power, and RV and boat "house" batteries. The major construction types are flooded (wet), gelled, and AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat). AGM batteries are also sometimes called "starved electrolyte" or "dry", because the fiberglass mat is only 95% saturated with Sulfuric acid and there is no excess liquid. Flooded may be standard, with removable caps, or the so-called "maintenance free" (that means they are designed to die one week after the warranty runs out). All gelled are sealed and a few are "valve regulated", which means that a tiny valve keeps a slight positive pressure. Nearly all AGM batteries are sealed valve regulated (commonly referred to as "VRLA" - Valve Regulated Lead-Acid). Most valve regulated are under some pressure - 1 to 4 psi at sea level.

Q24.How long will my battery last?

The lifespan of a battery will vary considerably with how it is used, how it is maintained and charged, temperature, and other factors.

Q25.How to connect a battery in Series?

The positive terminal of the first battery is connected to the negative terminal of the second battery, the positive terminal of the second is connected to the negative of the third, etc. The voltage of the assembled battery is the sum of the battery voltages of the individual batteries. So the batteries are connected: + to - to + to - to + to -, etc. The capacity of the battery is unchanged.

Q26.How to connect a battery in Parallel?

The positive terminal of the first battery is connected to the positive terminal of the second battery, the positive terminal of the second is connected to the positive of the third, etc. and The negative terminal of the first battery is connected to the negative terminal of the second battery, the negative terminal of the second is connected to the negative of the third, etc. So the batteries are connected: + to + to + and - to - to -. In this configuration, the capacity is the sum of the capacities of the individual batteries and voltage is unchanged. For example, if you take 5 6V 10AH batteries and connect the batteries in series, you would end up with a battery array that is 30 Volts and 10AH. If you connect the batteries in parallel, you would end up with a battery array that is 6 Volts and 50AH. By the way, this is how ordinary auto batteries are made. 6 2volt cells are put in series to give 12v battery and the 6 cells are just enclosed in one case. Many ni-cad batteries are done the same way.

Q27.What is a Starting battery?

Starting batteries (sometimes called SLI, for starting, lighting, ignition) are commonly used to start and run engines. Engine starters need a very large starting current for a very short time. Starting batteries have a large number of thin plates for maximum surface area. The plates are composed of a Lead "sponge", similar in appearance to a very fine foam sponge. This gives a very large surface area, but if deep cycled, this sponge will quickly be consumed and fall to the bottom of the cells. Automotive batteries will generally fail after 30-150 deep cycles if deep cycled, while they may last for thousands of cycles in normal starting use (2-5% discharge).

Q28.What is a Deep Cycle Battery?

Deep cycle batteries are designed to be discharged down as much as 80% time after time, and have much thicker plates than standard automotive battery.

Q29.What is a marine battery?

Marine batteries are considered a "hybrid" battery which actually fall between the starting and deep-cycle batteries. Marine batteries are usually rated using "MCA" or Marine cranking amps which is rated 32 degrees F, while CCA is at zero degree F. (For more information on CCA, CA & MCA, please see below)

Q30.What is a Sealed Maintenance Free Battery?

Sealed batteries are known as maintenance free batteries. They are made with vents that (usually) cannot be removed. A standard auto or marine maintenance free battery is sealed, but not fully leak proof. Sealed batteries are not totally sealed since all batteries must allow gas to vent during charging. There are sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries that are non-spillable. Please read the information on our SLA batteries, see AGM and Gel batteries below.

Q31.What is a AGM or Absorbed Glass Mat Battery?

The newer type of sealed non spillable maintenance free valve regulated battery uses "Absorbed Glass Mats", or AGM separators between the plates. This is a very fine fiber Boron-Silicate glass mat. These type of batteries have all the advantages of gelled, but can take much more abuse. These are also called "starved electrolyte.” Just like the Gel batteries, the AGM Battery will not leak acid if broken.

Q32.What are the advantages of the AGM battery?

The advantages of AGM batteries are no maintenance, sealed against fumes, hydrogen, leakage, or non-spilling even if they are broken, and can survive most freezes. AGM batteries are "recombinant" – which means the Oxygen and Hydrogen recombine inside the battery. These use gas phase transfer of oxygen to the negative plates to recombine them back into water while charging and prevent the loss of water through electrolysis. The recombining is typically 99+% efficient, so almost no water is lost. Charging voltages for most AGM batteries are the same as for a standard type battery so there is no need for special charging adjustments or problems with incompatible chargers or charge controls. Since the internal resistance is extremely low, there is almost no heating of the battery even under heavy charge and discharge currents. AGM batteries have a very low self-discharge rate (from 1% to 3% per month). So they can sit in storage for much longer periods without charging. The plates in AGM's are tightly packed and rigidly mounted, and will withstand shock and vibration better than any standard battery.

Q33.What is a Gel Cell Battery?

A gel battery design is typically a modification of the standard lead acid automotive or marine battery. A gelling agent is added to the electrolyte to reduce movement inside the battery case. Many gel batteries also use one way valves in place of open vents, this helps the normal internal gasses to recombine back into water in the battery, reducing gassing. "Gel Cell" batteries are non-spillable even if they are broken. Gel cells must be charged at a lower voltage (C/20) than flooded or AGM to prevent excess gas from damaging the cells. Fast charging them on a conventional automotive charger may permanently damage a Gel Battery.

Q34.What is the Reserve Capacity rating (RC)?

The reserve capacity of a battery is defined as the number of minutes that it can support a 25 ampere load at 80°F until its terminal voltage drops to 1.75 volts per cell or 10.50 volts for a 12V battery. Thus a 12V battery that has a reserve capacity rating of 100 signifies that it can be discharged at 25 amps for 100 minutes at 80°F before its voltage drops to 10.75 volts.

Q35.What is the CCA rating?

The cold cranking ampere (CCA) rating refers to the number of amperes a battery can support for 30 seconds at a temperature of 0°F until the battery voltage drops to 1.20 volts per cell, or 7.20 volts for a 12V battery. Thus, a 12V battery that carries a rating of 600 CCA tells us that the battery will provide 600 amperes for 30 seconds at 0°F before the voltage falls to 7.20V.

Q36.What is the marine cranking rating (MCA)?

The marine cranking ampere (MCA) rating refers to the number of amperes a battery can support for 30 seconds at a temperature of 32°F until the battery voltage drops to 1.20 volts per cell, or 7.20 volts for a 12V battery. Thus, a 12V battery that carries a MCA rating of 600 CCA tells us that the battery will provide 600 amperes for 30 seconds at 32°F before the voltage falls to 7.20V. Note that the MCA is sometimes referred to as the cranking amperes or CA.

Q37.What is the difference between MCA and CCA?
The marine cranking ampere (MCA) rating of a battery is very similar to the CCA rating; the only difference is that while the CCA is measured at a temperature of 0°F, the MCA is measured at 32°F. All other requirements are the same — the ampere draw is for 30 seconds and the end of discharge voltage in both cases is 1.20 volts per cell.

Q38.What is HCA rating?

The full form of HCA is hot cranking amperes. It is the same thing as the MCA or the CA or the CCA, except that the temperature at which the test is conducted is 80°F.

Q39.What is the pulse cranking amp rating (PCA)?

Unlike CCA and MCA the pulse cranking ampere (PCA) rating does not have an "official" definition; however, we believe that for true engine start purposes, a 30 second discharge is unrealistic. With that in mind, the PCA is a very short duration (typically about 3 seconds) high rate discharge. Because the discharge is for such a short time, it is more like a pulse.

Q40.What is the Amp Hour (Ah) rating?

An amp-hour is one amp for one hour, or 10 amps for 1/10 of an hour and so forth. It is amps X hours. If you have something that pulls 20 amps, and you use it for 20 minutes, then the amp-hours used would be 20 (amps) X .333 (hours), or 6.67 AH. The accepted AH rating time period for batteries used in solar electric and backup power systems (and for nearly all deep cycle batteries) is the "20 hour rate". This means that it is discharged down to 10.5 volts over a 20 hour period while the total actual amp-hours it supplies is measured. Sometimes ratings at the 6 hour rate and 100 hour rate are also given for comparison and for different applications. The 6-hour rate is often used for industrial batteries, as that is a typical daily duty cycle. Sometimes the 100 hour rate is given just to make the battery look better than it really is, but it is also useful for figuring battery capacity for long-term backup amp-hour requirements.

Q41.What is a MilliAmp Hour (MAH)?

MilliAmp Hour means how much current a battery will discharge over a period of one hour. Higher numbers here reflect a long battery runtime and or higher storage capacity. Higher MAH ratings do not necessarily reflect on speed but more on runtime. For example a 2000 mAh pack will sustain a 2000 milli amp (2 amp) draw for one hour before dropping to a voltage level that is considered discharged. A 1700 will sustain a 1700 mAh (1.7 amp) draw for one hour. 1000 mAH is equal to a 1 Amp Hour (AH) rating.

Q42.What is a VOLT?

A Volt is the unit of measure for electrical potential.

Q43.What is a WATT?

A WATT is the unit for measuring electrical power, i.e., the rate of doing work, in moving electrons by, or against, an electrical potential. Formula: Watts = Amperes x Volts.

Q44.What is a WATT-HOUR (Watt-Hr, WH)?

A WATT-HOUR is the unit of measure for electrical energy expressed as Watts x Hours.

Q45.What is an OHM?

OHM is a unit for measuring electrical resistance or impedance within an electrical circuit.

Q46.What is OHM'S Law?

OHM’S Law expresses the relationship between volts (V) and amperes (A) in an electrical circuit with resistance (R). It can be expressed as follows: V= IR Volts (V) = Amperes (I) x Ohms (R). If any two of the three values are known, the third value can be calculated using the above equation.

Q47.What is Electrolyte?

In a lead-acid battery, the electrolyte is sulfuric acid diluted with water. It is a conductor that supplies water and sulfate for the electrochemical reaction:

Q48.What is the proper electrolyte level?

Liquid levels should be 1/8 inch below the bottom of the vent well (the plastic tube that extends into the battery). The electrolyte level should not drop below the top of the plates.

Q49.Do I ever need to add acid to my battery?

Under normal operating conditions, you never need to add acid. For a standard auto or marine battery, only distilled, deionized or approved water should be added to achieve the recommended levels mentioned above. When a battery is shipped in a dry state or accidental spillage occurs, electrolyte should be added to the battery. Once filled, a battery should only need periodic water addition.

Q50.Can batteries freeze?

In a partially discharged state, the electrolyte in a lead acid battery may freeze. At a 40% state of charge, electrolyte will freeze if the temperature reaches approximately ­16.0°F. The freezing temperature of the electrolyte in a fully charged battery is -92.0°F.

Q51.How can a standard automotive or marine battery's state of charge be accurately measured?
The state of charge of a lead acid battery is most accurately determined by measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte. This is done with a hydrometer. Battery voltage also indicates the level of charge when measured in an open circuit condition. This should be done with a voltmeter. For an accurate voltage reading, the battery should also be allowed to rest for a period sufficient to let the voltage stabilize.

Q52.Does my deep cycle battery develop a memory?

Lead acid batteries do not develop any type of memory.

Q53.Do batteries self-discharge when not in use?

All batteries, regardless of their chemistry, self-discharge. The rate of self-discharge depends both on the type of battery and the storage temperature the batteries are exposed to. However, for a good estimate, wet flooded deep cycle batteries self-discharge approximately 4% per week at 80°F.

Q54.Is there a maximum temperature for charging lead acid batteries?

When charging lead acid batteries, the temperature should not exceed 120°F. At this point the battery should be taken off charge and allowed to cool before resuming the charge process.

Q55.Are lead acid batteries recyclable?

Lead acid batteries are 100% recyclable. Lead is the most recycled metal in the world today. The plastic containers and covers of old batteries are neutralized, reground and used in the manufacture of new battery cases. The electrolyte can be processed for recycled waste water uses. In some cases, the electrolyte is cleaned and reprocessed and sold as battery grade electrolyte. In other instances, the sulfate content is removed as Ammonia Sulfate and used in fertilizers. The separators are often used as a fuel source for the recycling process.

Q56.Where do I recycle my old batteries?

Old batteries may be returned to the battery retailer, automotive service station, a battery manufacturer or other authorized collection centers for recycling.

Q57.What Are The Different Types of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries & Technologies?

Batteries in portable consumer devices (laptops and notebooks, camcorders, cellular phones, etc.) are principally made using either Nickel Cadmium (NiCad), Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) or Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) technologies. Each type of rechargeable battery technology has its own unique characteristics.

Q58.What is the difference between a NiCad and NiMH chemistry battery?

The main difference between the two is the fact that NiMH batteries (the newer of the two technologies) offer higher energy densities than NiCad’s. In other words, pound for pound, NiMH delivers approximately twice the capacity of its NiCad counterpart. What this translates into is increased run-time from the battery with no additional bulk to weigh down your portable device. NiMH also offers another major advantage: NiCad batteries tend to suffer from what is called the "memory effect". NiMH batteries are less prone to develop this dreaded affliction and thus require less maintenance and care. NiMH batteries are also more environmentally friendly than their NiCad counterparts since they do not contain heavy metals (which present serious landfill problems).

Q59.What is a Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) Battery?

Li-Ion has quickly become the emerging standard for portable power in consumer devices. Li-Ion batteries produce the same energy as NiMH batteries but weigh approximately 35% less. This is crucial in applications such as camcorders or notebook computers where the battery makes up a significant portion of the device's weight. Another reason Li-Ion batteries have become so popular is that they do not suffer from the memory effect AT ALL. They are also environmentally friendly because they don't contain toxic materials such as Cadmium or Mercury.

Q60.What is the "Memory Effect" that I have heard about?

NiCad batteries, and to a lesser extent NiMH batteries, suffer from what's called the "memory effect". What this means is that if a battery is repeatedly only partially discharged before recharging, the battery "forgets" that it has the capacity to further discharge all the way down. To illustrate: If you, on a regular basis, fully charge your battery and then use only 50% of its capacity before the next recharge, eventually the battery will become unaware of its extra 50% capacity which has remained unused. The battery will remain functional, but only at 50% of its original capacity. The way to avoid the dreaded "memory effect" is to fully cycle (fully charge and then fully discharge) the battery at least once every two to three weeks. Batteries can be discharged by unplugging the device's AC adapter and letting the device run on the battery until it ceases to function. This will insure your battery remains healthy.

Q61.Do I need to charge my new Laptop or Notebook battery?

A new battery comes in a discharged condition and must be charged before use (refer to the devices manual for charging instructions). Upon initial use (or after a prolonged storage period) the battery may require three to four charge/discharge cycles before achieving maximum capacity. When charging the battery for the first time the device may indicate that charging is complete after just 10 or 15 minutes. This is a normal phenomenon with rechargeable batteries. Remove the battery from the device, reinsert it and repeat the charging procedure.

Q62.Do I have to condition my Laptop or Notebook battery?

Yes, it is very important to condition or fully discharge and then fully charge the battery every two to three weeks. Failure to do so may significantly shorten the battery's life (this does not apply to Li-Ion batteries, which do not require conditioning). To discharge, simply run the device under the battery's power until it shuts down or until you get a low battery warning. Then recharge the battery as instructed in the user's manual.

Q63.My new laptop battery is not Charging. What is wrong?

New batteries are shipped in a discharged condition and must be charged before use. We generally recommend an overnight charge (approximately twelve hours). Refer to the user's manual for charging instructions. Rechargeable batteries should be cycled (fully charged and then fully discharged) two to four times initially to allow them to reach their full capacity. (Note: it is normal for a battery to become warm to the touch during charging and discharging).
New laptop batteries are hard for the device to charge; they have never been fully charged and are therefore "unformed". Sometimes the device's charger will stop charging a new battery before it is fully charged. If this happens, remove the battery from the device and then reinsert it. The charge cycle should begin again. This may happen several times during the first battery charge. Don't worry; it's perfectly normal.

Q64.Is it Possible to Upgrade the Device's Battery to a Newer Chemistry?

NiCad, NiMH and Li-Ion are all fundamentally different technologies and cannot be substituted for one another unless the device has been pre-configured from the factory to accept more than one type of rechargeable battery. The difference between them stems from the fact that each technology requires a different charging pattern to be properly recharged. Therefore, the portable device's charger must be properly configured to handle a given type of rechargeable battery. Refer to your owners manual to find out which rechargeable battery types the particular device supports or use our QuickFind search engine to find the device in our database. The database will automatically list all of the battery types supported by the machine.

Q65.How do I Jump Start my Battery using booster cables?

WARNING-BATTERIES PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE GASES. These instructions are designed to minimize the explosion hazard. Keep sparks, flames and cigarettes away from batteries at all times. Both batteries should be of the same voltage (6, 12, etc.).
SAFE BOOSTER CABLE OPERATION When jump starting, always wear proper eye protection and never lean over the battery. Do not jump start a damaged battery; inspect both batteries before connecting booster cables. Be sure vent caps are tight and level. Be sure that the vehicles are not touching and that both ignition switches are in the "OFF" position. Turn off all electrical equipment (radio, defroster, windshield wipers, lights, etc.)
The following steps should be followed exactly.
1. Connect positive (+) booster cable to positive (+) terminal of discharged battery.
2. Connect other end of positive (+) cable to positive (+) terminal of assisting battery.
3. Connect negative (-) cable to negative (-) terminal of assisting battery.
4. MAKE FINAL CONNECTION OF NEGATIVE (-) CABLE TO ENGINE BLOCK OF STALLED VEHICLE, AWAY FROM BATTERY AND CARBURETOR.
5. Be sure that cables are clear of fan blades, belts and other moving parts of both engines.

6. Start vehicle and remove cables in REVERSE order of connections.







Will update soon the remaining Technical ones .........